Wednesday 01st of October 2014 01:53:48 AM

You don't have to keep typing in pairs of numbers like this,though. Instead of the preceding markup, try this:

These two values are enough to take the place of four. But how?

CSS defines a few steps to accommodate fewer than four values formargin:

The only drawback to this ability is a small one, but you'rebound to run into it eventually. Suppose you want to set the top andleft margins for H1 elements to be 10 pixels, and

CSS Tutorials

CSS Tutorials

Welcome to the CSS Tutorials. In this section we cover Cascading Style Sheets, the powerful supplement to HTML that allows you complete control over the look of your websites. We'll show you how to create Cascading Style Sheets, and some of the cool tricks you can achieve with them.

For Beginners...

Introduction to CSS
This tutorial covers the basics: what are style sheets? How do I make a style sheet? It also shows some of the cool things you can do with style sheets.

CSS Units
A description of all the units that can be used with CSS, including lengths, percentages, colours and URL's.

For Intermediate Users...

Controlling Background Images and Colours
Learn how to use CSS properties to add background images and colour to your Web pages. Lots of neat tricks and examples are included!

Controlling Fonts with CSS
In this tutorial we take a look at how to control the fonts used in your page body text, using the various font properties that can be controlled with style sheets.

Controlling Text Appearance with CSS
This tutorial shows you how to control the layout of your text using the text properties available in CSS, such as line spacing and text alignment.

Making Lists Look Nicer with CSS
You can really go to town with HTML lists when you add a sprinkle of CSS! This tutorial shows you how to make your lists stand out from the crowd.

For Advanced Users...

CSS Positioning
This tutorial teaches you how to use CSS to position images, text, and other elements on your Web pages. Essential reading for anyone who wants to start using CSS for layout.

7.5.3. Padding and Inline Elements

There is one major difference between margins and padding when it comes to inline elements. Let's turn things around and talk about left and right padding first off. Here, if we set values for the left or right padding, they will be visible, as Figure 7-60 makes apparent.

B {padding-left: 10px; padding-right: 10px; background: silver;}
Figure 7-60

Figure 7-60. Padding on an inline element

The simplest category of XML Java applications is the kind of Java application that stores information in XML documents (files). This is illustrated in Figure 1. By using XML to create your own markup languages (i.e. your own file formats for your information) in an open way, you don't have to use propietary and binary file formats. Using XML over proprietary binary file formats, allows your applications to have immense inter operability across platforms, applications and even programming languages. Since any kind of markup language can be defined using XML (you can even formalize it by creating a DTD for it) applications can store their information using their own markup languages. For example, address book information can be stored in an AddressBookML file. A few commercial programs currently available allow saving their application data to XML files, e.g., Framemaker can save its documents as XML files.

In order to create applications of this category, you might have to define a DTD for your information. Then you have to write classes to import and export information from your XML document(s) (validating using your application's DTD if you have one). You must also write the classes which create the user interface in your application. The user of your application can view and modify information using the GUI (graphical user interface), and they can save (and load) their information to (and from) an XML file (that might use your DTD); in other words, they can save (and load) their information to (and from) an ApplicationML file (where Application is the name of your application). Some examples are AddressBookML, MathML, SVGML, etc.

The classes that import and export information from your ApplicationML file must use the parser and SAX or DOM API in order to import the information. These classes can access this information by using one of the following strategies:

Atag, both of which are nonreplaced elements, and images,which are replaced elements.


Note that none of this applies to table elements. CSS2 introduces new properties andbehaviors for handling tables and table content, and these newfeatures behave in ways fairly distinct from either block-level orinline formatting. See Section 10.1, "Changes from CSS1" for an overview.

H1 {font-variant: small-caps;}
Figure 5-30

Figure 5-30. Legal, if not optimal, rendering of small caps


Of the browsers which even recognize font-variant: small-caps (Explorer 4 and 5, and Opera 3.5), only Opera and IE5 for Macintosh do what authors would expect in the display of the text. Other versions of Explorer take the all-capitals route.

There are a number of properties relating to the layout of boxes. These are known as the "seven properties" of horizontal formatting: (from the left) margin-left, border-left, padding-left, width , padding-right, border-right, and margin-right. These are illustrated in Figure 8-9. The values of these seven properties must equal the value of width for an element's parent.